FAQ - Definitions and interpretation

Definitions and interpretations in relation to sport and anti-doping


The Anti-Doping Administration and Management System is a Web- based database management tool for data entry, storage, sharing, and reporting designed to assist stakeholders and WADA in their anti-doping operations in conjunction with data protection legislation.

Adverse Analytical Finding

A report from a WADA-accredited laboratory or other WADA-approved laboratory that, consistent with the International Standard for Laboratories and related Technical Documents, identifies in a Sample the presence of a Prohibited Substance or its Metabolites or Markers (including elevated quantities of endogenous substances) or evidence of the Use of a Prohibited Method.

Atypical Finding

A report from a WADA-accredited laboratory or other WADA-approved laboratory which requires further investigation as provided by the International Standard for Laboratories or related Technical Documents prior to the determination of an Adverse Analytical Finding.

Anti-Doping Organization

A Signatory (other than WADA) that is responsible for adopting rules for initiating, implementing or enforcing any part of the Doping Control process. This includes, for example, the International Olympic Committee, the International Paralympic Committee, other Major Event Organizations that conduct Testing at their Events, WADA, International Federations, and National AntiDoping Organizations.

National Anti-Doping Organization: The entity(ies) designated by each country as possessing the primary authority and responsibility to adopt and implement anti-doping rules, direct the collection of Samples, the management of test results, and the conduct of hearings at the national level. If this designation has not been made by the competent public authority(ies), the entity shall be the country’s National Olympic Committee or its designee.


Any Person who competes in sport at the international level (as defined by each International Federation) or the national level (as defined by each National Anti-Doping Organization). An Anti-Doping Organization has discretion to apply anti-doping rules to an Athlete who is neither an International-Level Athlete nor a National-Level Athlete, and thus to bring them within the definition of “Athlete.” In relation to Athletes who are neither International-Level nor National-Level Athletes, or are Recreational Athletes, an Anti-Doping Organization may elect to: conduct limited Testing or no Testing at all; analyze Samples for less than the full menu of Prohibited Substances; require limited or no whereabouts information; or not require advance TUEs. However, if an Article 2.1, 2.3 or 2.5 anti-doping rule violation is committed by any Athlete over whom an Anti-Doping Organization has authority who competes below the international or national level, then the Consequences set forth in the Code (except Article 14.3.2) must be applied. For purposes of Article 2.8 and Article 2.9 and for purposes of anti-doping information and education, any Person who participates in sport under the authority of any Signatory, government, or other sports organization accepting the Code is an Athlete.

International-Level Athlete

Athletes who compete in sport at the international level, as defined by each International Federation, consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

Recreational Athlete

A natural Person who is so defined by the relevant International Federation, National Anti-Doping Organization or Major Event Organization; provided, however, the term shall not include any Person who, within the five years prior to committing any anti-doping rule violation, has been an International-Level Athlete (as defined by each International Federation consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations) or National-Level Athlete (as defined by each National Anti-Doping Organization consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations), has represented any country in an International Event or has been included within any Registered Testing Pool or other whereabouts information pool maintained by any International Federation or National Anti-Doping Organization.

Athlete Biological Passport

The program and methods of gathering and collating data as described in the International Standard for Testing and Investigations and International Standard for Laboratories.

You can read more about the Athlete Biological Passport here

Doping Control

All steps and processes from test distribution planning through to ultimate disposition of any appeal and the enforcement of Consequences, including all steps and processes in between including but not limited to Testing, investigations whereabouts , TUEs, Sample collection and handling, laboratory analysis, Results Management, hearings and appeals, and investigations or proceedings relating to violations of Article 10.13 (Status During Ineligibility or Mandatory Provisional Suspension).

Registered Testing Pool

The pool of highest-priority Athletes established at the international level by International Federations and at the national level by National Anti-Doping Organizations, who are subject to focused Out-of-Competition Testing as part of that International Federation's or National Anti-Doping Organization's test distribution plan and therefore are required to provide whereabouts information as provided in Article 5.6 and the International Standard for Testing and Investigations.

In-Competition Testing

The period commencing at 11:59 p.m. on the day before a Competition in which the Athlete is scheduled to participate through the end of such Competition and the Sample collection process related to such Competition. Provided, however, WADA may approve, for a particular sport, an alternative definition if an International Federation provides a compelling justification that a different definition is necessary for its sport; upon such approval by WADA, the alternative definition shall be followed by all Major Event Organizations for that particular sport. In the case of an Athlete’s withdrawal from a Competition after 11:59 p.m. the day before the Athlete is scheduled to participate, the Athlete shall remain subject to In-Competition Testing for twenty-four hours after withdrawal unless released earlier by written notification.

Out-of-Competition Testing

Any period which is not In-Competition.

Independent Observer Program

A team of observers and/or auditors, under the supervision of WADA, who observe and provide guidance on the Doping Control process prior to or during certain Events and report on their observations as part of WADA’s compliance monitoring program.

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