Anabolic Agents
Anabolic steroids, technically known as anabolic-androgen steroids (AAS) or colloquially as "steroids" (or even "roids"), are drugs that mimic the effects of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the body. They increase protein synthesis within cells, which results in the buildup of cellular tissue (anabolism), especially in muscles. Anabolic steroids also have androgenic and virilizing properties, including the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics such as the growth of the vocal cords, testicles, and body hair (secondary sexual characteristics). The word anabolic comes from the Greek ἀναβολή anabole, "that which is thrown up, mound", and the word androgenic from the Greek ἀνδρός andros, "of a man" + -γενής -genes, "born". Anabolic steroids were first isolated, identified, and synthesized in the 1930s, and are now used therapeutically in medicine to stimulate bone growth and appetite, induce male puberty, and treat chronic wasting conditions, such as cancer and AIDS. The American College of Sports Medicine acknowledges that AAS, in the presence of adequate diet, can contribute to increases in body weight, often as lean mass increases, and that the gains in muscular strength achieved through high-intensity exercise and proper diet can be additionally increased by the use of AAS in some individuals.[1] Health risks can be produced by long-term use or excessive doses of anabolic steroids.[2][3] These effects include harmful changes in cholesterol levels (increased low-density lipoprotein and decreased high-density lipoprotein), acne, high blood pressure, liver damage (mainly with oral steroids), dangerous changes in the structure of the left ventricle of the heart.[4] Conditions pertaining to hormonal imbalances such as gynecomastia and testicular atrophy may also be caused by anabolic steroids. Ergogenic uses for anabolic steroids in sports, racing, and bodybuilding are controversial because of their adverse effects and the potential to gain an advantage conventionally considered "cheating." Their use is referred to as doping and banned by all major sporting bodies. For many years, AAS have been by far the most detected doping substances in IOC-accredited laboratories.[5][6] In countries where AAS are controlled substances, there is often a black market in which smuggled, clandestinely manufactured, or even counterfeit drugs are sold to users. (From Wikipedia)

Androstendione

The substance is also known as Hydroxy - androstendione.

Androstenedione

This product is just like androstendione except for one big difference. Instead of converting to testosterone in the body, it will convert to nor-testosterone instead. This is desirable for those that would like the increase in blood testosterone levels without the added side effects that are present with androstendione. An analogy can be drawn to steroids. Testosterone cypionate for example has much greater side effects than deca-durabolin does. Deca is nandrolone.

Androsterone

A steroid metabolite, found in male urine, having weak androgenic potency. Formed in testes from progesterone.
Source: drugs.com

Budesonide

Budesonide is a steroid. It prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation..

Budesonide is used to treat mild to moderate Crohn's disease.

Budesonide may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Clenbuterol

The popularity of this drug among some athletes is due to the anabolic effect together with the fat reducing effect of this drug, even though there is, to my knowledge, no clinical evidence that can support such effects. The likely explanation is that the fat is re-distributed into the muscle.
In many countries clenbuterol is only prescribed to animals and is used e.g. for respiratory disease in horses and in cattle to relax the uterus at the time of parturition. It is also used illegally in pigs to obtain leaner meats. There have been several reported occasions where people have been poisoned by eating pork contaminated by clenbuterol.

Written by International Doping Tests & Management (www.idtm.se) for The Anti-Doping Database

Sources:
www.wikipedia.org
www.dopingjouren.se

Clostebol

Clostebol, usually as the ester clostebol acetate, is a synthetic anabolic androgenic steroid. Clostebol is the 4-chloro derivative of the natural hormone testosterone.

It is a weak anabolic Steroid used often by Germans during their Olympic glory days. Version of testosterone that is chlorinated so as to prevent conversion to DHT while also rendering the chemical incapable of conversion to estrogen. Although these are both desirable to body builders, the chemical never became popular in the US probably due to availability and the weak nature as compared with testosterone.
(Source: Wikipedia)

Desoximetasone

Desoximetasone is a topical steroid. It reduces or inhibits the actions of chemicals in the body that cause inflammation, redness, and swelling.
Desoximetasone is used to treat inflammation caused by a number of conditions such as allergic reactions, eczema, and psoriasis. (Source: Drug Information Online, http://www.drugs.com/)

Desoxymethyltestosterone

DMT (desoxy-methyl-testosterone) this was the second designer steroid uncovered.

Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone suppresses inflammation and normal immune response, and is used systemically and locally to treat chronic inflammatory disorders, severe allergies, and other diseases.

Epimetendiol

Epimetendiol is one of the major urinary metabolites of the anabolic androgenic compound metandienone. Anabolic-androgenic steroids such as metandienone are some of the most frequently detected drugs in amateur and professional sports. Doping control laboratories have developed numerous assays enabling the determination of administered drugs and/or their metabolic products that allow retrospectives with respect to pharmacokinetics and excretion profiles of steroids and their metabolites. Metandienone misuse can be detected by high resolution mass spectrometry for a prolonged period after stopping the intake of metandienone. Androgenic anabolic steroids are defined as natural, synthetic or semi-synthetic drugs chemicals derived from testosterone, used with the aim to improve physical performance by increasing both muscle strength and mass. Despite their reported toxicological effects on the cardiovascular, hepatic and neuro-endocrine systems, the AAS have been extensively used in sports activities. The use of anabolic steroids was banned by the International Olympic Committee for the first time at the Olympic Games in Montreal in 1976. Androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) are defined as natural, synthetic or semi-synthetic drugs chemicals derived from testosterone, used with the aim to improve physical performance by increasing both muscle strength and mass. Despite their reported toxicological effects on the cardiovascular, hepatic and neuro-endocrine systems, the AAS have been extensively used in sports activities.

Fluoxymesterone

Fluoxymesterone (trade name Halotestin) is an anabolic steroid with strong androgenic properties that has been used in the treatment of male hypogonadism, delayed puberty in males, and in the treatment of breast neoplasms in women.
Like many C-17 alpha alkylated steroids, fluoxymesterone has poor binding to the androgen receptor. Even so, its actions are mediated by the androgen receptor, most-likely due to its prolonged plasma half-life.

Metenolone

Metenolone is a long-acting anabolic steroid with weak androgenic (testosterone or androsterone-like) properties. It is a naturally occurring drug, found within the adrenal glands of pregnant domesticated felines, and is supplied as the acetate ester for oral administration and as the enanthate ester for intramuscular injection.

Source: wikipedia.org

Methandrostenolone

Dianabol was developed in the 1950s by John Ziegler and while it was often administered to treat burns and the elderly, it was also popular with bodybuilders and weightlifters. Ziegler\'s intention was to create a substance that could build strength like testosterone, the male sex hormone, without significant disadvantages, although the side-effects suffered by abusers include heart problems and infertility.

source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methandienone

nandrolone

Nandrolone, also known as 19-nortestosterone, is an anabolic androgenic steroid that occurs naturally in the human body, albeit in tiny quantities. The structure of the molecule is very similar to the male hormone testosterone, and it has many of the same effects in terms of increasing muscle mass and reducing the fatigue associated with training, and reducing the time required for recovery after physical exertion.
Nandrolone, (usually in the form of injectable Deca Durabolin) is one of the most commonly abused anabolic androgenic compounds in the world. Since it is not metabolised to dihydrotestosterone Nandrolone has somewhat milder unwanted side effects than testosterone. It was previously used clinically for treatment of osteoporosis in post menopausal women at a dose of 50 mg every three weeks. However, as the abused doses are normally 10-100 times the therapeutic dose, side effects such as breast enlargement, acne, erectile dysfunction occurs in men and increased body hair, alteration of the voice, reduction of the breasts etc. in women. In addition, long term use leads to cardiovascular and liver damage.

Nandrolone is metabolised to 19-norandrosterone, the substance detected in doping tests. Since it occurs naturally in the body there is a detection cut off concentration of 2 ng/ml and concentrations above that are considered suspicious.

In 2007 the five-time track and field gold medalist Marion Jones admitted to use of the drug, and was sentenced to six months in jail for lying to a federal grand jury in 2000.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nandrolone
http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/nandrolone/nandc.htm

Norandrostenedione

19-Norandrostenedione is derived from the steroid hormone androstenedione.

Androstenedione, which is one of the two metabolites of DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone), is the main intermediate hormone in the production of testosterone.

Norandrostenedione is readily metabolised (broken down) in the liver to nortestosterone, which is also known as nandrolone (durabolin) and binds strongly to the testosterone receptors.
Side effects

Norandrostenedione has the same side effects as anabolic steroids including psychological and physical effects such as jaundice, permanent liver damage, liver tumors, diabetes, acne (face and back), heart problems, high cholesterol levels, blood poisoning and HIV through sharing needles, depression, mood swings, violent or aggressive behaviour, paranoia.

Some of the side effects can be serious, sudden and include sudden death.
Status in Sport

Norandrostenedione is prohibited both in and out of competition under the World Anti-Doping Code 2006 Prohibited List (effective from 01/01/06).

Norandrosterone

Norandrosterone is an anabolic agent ingested through the body via an injection. Norandrosterone is related to nandrolone and is often used in nutritional supplements. Testing agencies usually look for norandrosterone to detect nandrolone usage. It is banned because it helps athletes increase their strength and muscle mass, especially when taken in large quantities. This is considered to offer an unfair advantage over those athletes who don't use performance-enhancing drugs.

Oral-Turinabol

Oral Turinabol is the brand name for 4-Chlorodehydromethyltestosterone, is an anabolic steroid. It is a chlor-substituted version of methandrostenolone (Dianabol).
Turinabol was the first original product of Jenapharm, an East German pharmaceutical company. The patent registration took place in 1961. The idea of combining the structures of 4-chlorotestosterone and methandrostenolone originated from the chemist Albert Stachowiak.[citation needed] At the time this represented a unique dissociation of anabolic and androgenic effects after oral administration.
The product had been introduced for clinical use in 1965. Turinabol was the key steroid administered to approximately 10,000 athletes from East Germany (GDR). The doping program was run by the East German Government from about 1968 thru until 1989 when the Berlin wall was destroyed. The doping program was known as STASI 14.25. The doping was done in secret and it was only in the 1990\'s when Franke and Berendonk looked closely at the original archived information was the true scope of just how well-planned and successful the doping regime had been (in terms of medal success and world record performances).
(Source: Wikipedia)

stanozolol

Stanozolol is a man-made steroid, similar to the a naturally occurring steroid testosterone. It is used in the treatment of hereditary angioedema, which causes episodes of swelling of the face, extremities, genitals, bowel wall, and throat.
The steroid may decrease the frequency and severity of these attacks.

Stanozolol is a steroid with anabolic properties (i.e. it accelerates bone and muscle growth).

Stanozolol is responsible for the development of the male reproductive system and secondary male sexual characteristics such as hairiness, deep voice, etc. It is available as a tablet or injection.

Anabolic steroids have some medical uses such as to build muscle in bed-ridden and immobile patients and in the treatment of some rare causes of anaemia. Anabolic steroids are primarily abused by young men to improve their body image and by athletes and body builders. It is because of this that illegal anabolic steroids are mainly found in the gym or health club scenes.

The effect people seek from anabolic steroid use is an increase in muscle mass either for an improvement in appearance or sporting performance and to lower training fatigue.
Side effects

Possible side effects of stanozolol include liver damage, development of breast tissue, menstrual disturbances, hair loss, deepened voice, acne and infertility.
Status in Sport

Stanozolol is prohibited both in and out of competition under the World Anti-Doping Code 2006 Prohibited List (effective from 01/01/06).

Testosterone

Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. Both men and women produce this hormone. The substance strengthen muscle tone and bone mass.

Testosterone is produced by the testicles of men and the ovaries and adrenal system in women.

In medicine testosterone is used in men and boys to treat conditions caused by a lack of this hormone, such as delayed puberty, impotence, or other hormonal imbalances. It is also used in women to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.

Chemically, testosterone is 17-beta-hydroxy-4-androstene-3-one.

Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Testosterone
http://www.drugs.com/testosterone.html
http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=5747

Tetrahydrogestrinone

Tetrahydrogestrinone is a banned steroid which had been tweaked by chemists to make it undetectable by normal dope tests.
Tetrahydrogestrinone is a so-called "designer steroid" that had been previously undetected by drug tests. Steroids build muscle mass and allow athletes to train longer and harder. But health officials warn that steroids can have long-term health risks.

Who identified it?
Dr. Don Catlin at the UCLA Olympic drug testing center identified the steroid and provided to the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency.

Where did it come from?
USADA says Burlingame's Balco Laboratories is the "likely source."

Zeranol

Zeranol is listed under anabolic agents in the WADA Prohibited Substances List. According to Wikipedia Zeranol is a non-steroidal estrogen agonist. It is a mycotoxin, derived from fungi in the Fusarium family, and may be found as a contaminant in fungus-infected crops. In the US studies has shown that beef cattle are given this steroid to make them fatter faster, to save money.

Peptide substances hormones, growth factors and related substances

Continuous Erythropoeitin Receptor Activators

Mircera (methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta) is a long acting erythropoietin receptor activator indicated for the treatment of patients with anemia associated with chronic kidney disease.

It stimulates the red blood cell production by interacting with erythropoietin (EPO) receptor sites in the bone marrow. Mircera is a chemically modified erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) with a much longer half life in the body than other common ESA drugs (such as Aranesp/Darbopoetin alpha) which means that longer injection intervals could be used with sustained Hb levels.

Mircera is the brand name for CERA and was developed by the Swiss health care company Roche.

Sources: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Roche, Mircera.com

Websites:
www.fda.gov/
www.roche.com/med-cor-2006-07-17
www.mircera.com/
www.drugs.com/mircera.html

Written by International Doping Tests & Management (www.idtm.se) for IADB

Darbepoetin alpha

Darbepoetin (Aranesp) is a substance analogue and mimetic of recombinant EPO (r-EPO).

Erythropoietin

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a naturally occurring substance that stimulates red blood cell production. Human EPO has become readily available as a synthetic drug and other similar drugs, such as Darbepoetin Alfa, have been developed from the study of the activity and elimination of EPO in the human body. Both rhEPO and darbepoetin influence the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood by increasing the number of red blood cells to unnatural levels and present a significant danger to an endurance athlete. The increased number of cells carried in the blood causes the heart to work harder. In addition, the increased number of cells may increase the possibility of heart attack, pulmonary embolism, or stroke. The dehydration seen in endurance athletes would only increase the threat of a problem from the unnatural increase in the number of cells in the blood.)

On August 1, 2000, the IOC Medical Commission unanimously agreed on implementing new tests for the banned endurance-boosting hormone, EPO. The International Olympic Committee has approved two tests for the detection of EPO. The final approval for the EPO testing would occur at the IOC executive board meeting to be held on August 28-29, 2000.

Erythropoietin (Epo) is a glycoprotein hormone that promotes the production of red blood cells. Recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) is illicitly used to improve performance in endurance sports. Doping in sports is discouraged by the screening of athletes for rhEPO in urine. The adopted test is based on a combination of isoelectric focusing and double immunoblotting, and distinguishes between endogenous and recombinant human Epo. We show here that this widely-used test can occasionally lead to the false-positive detection of rhEpo (epoetin-) in post-exercise, protein-rich urine, probably because the adopted monoclonal anti-Epo antibodies are not monospecific.

Using EPO can be dangerous because by increasing the thickness of the blood, EPO increases the risk of blood clotting which can block blood vessels causing a heart attack or stroke.

Use of EPO also causes hypertension, and can lead to seizures and congestive heart failure. Sport is about testing limits. Unfortunately, in the case of EPO the limit being tested is how high the red blood cell content of the athlete’s blood can increase before blood flow is impaired and the athlete dies.

Former Belgian cycling champion Eddy Planckaert confessed taking EPO in 1991, and said that during the last two years of his career (1990 and 91) many riders were using EPO. Along with the performance benefits of EPO, however, came a spate of controversial deaths among top-level cyclists. Between 1987, when EPO became available in Europe, and 1990, 18 Dutch and Belgian cyclists died suddenly, raising suspicions that naive users did not realize they were playing with fire.

EPO was added to the prohibited list, then governed by IOC, in 1989. (Source: Antidoping Denmark)

Hematide

Hematide is an investigational synthetic peptide, substituted with polyethylene glycol (thus described as "PEGylated"). It is a novel erythropoietic agent, being an analog of erythropoietin, and has been developed for medical use as a treatment for anemia, now in stage 3 clinical trials. Whether it will be approved is not certain.

The drugs currently used to treat anemia in the United States are epoetin alfa (which mimics the structure of the human glycoprotein which promotes red blood cell development, sold under the names Procrit and Epogen) and darboepoetin alfa (which is a more glycosylated form of epoetin, sold under the name Aranesp). There are similar biologic agents, such as Mircera, sold by Roche in Europe, however "United States patent law currently forbids their sale.

Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin

Parenteral administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the production of testosterone in males and these gonadotropins can therefore be used by athletes to enhance muscle strength.

Due to its involvement in pregnancy, HCG is only prohibited in males.

Sources:
http://www.teachpe.com/drugs/hcg.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gonadotropin
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18414398

Human Growth Hormone

Anecdotal stories of the abuse of human growth hormone (hGH) by athletes have been circulating for many years, especially since the early 1980s. Until recently, there has not been a reliable test available to detect abuse among athletes. However, at this time, there is a reliable test which has been used at recent athletic events. HGH is a normal substance in the human body and is produced over the lifetime of a person. The hormone is responsible for growth and when administered to an adult whose growth has stopped increases protein synthesis. The use of hGH in large quantities to increase normal levels produces long term and irreversible changes to the body. These changes are known as acromegaly and include enlargement of the hands, changes to the shape of the forehead and jaw, and other distinctive abnormal changes to the body.

Insulin-like Growth Factor

Insulin is a normal substance within the human body and, anecdotally, is used by athletes to increase muscle stores of glycogen and reduce protein breakdown. The immediate effect of an overdose of insulin is the reduction of blood sugar to a point that a person can lapse into unconciousness and die. The use of insulin to enhance athletic performance creates an immediate risk to one's health and well being.

Methylprednisolone

Methylprednisolone, a corticosteroid, is similar to a natural hormone produced by your adrenal glands. It is often used to replace this chemical when your body does not make enough of it. It relieves inflammation (swelling, heat, redness, and pain) and is used to treat certain forms of arthritis; skin, blood, kidney, eye, thyroid, and intestinal disorders (e.g., colitis); severe allergies; and asthma. Methylprednisolone is also used to treat certain types of cancer.
(Source: MedlinePlus - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/)

Beta-2 Agonists

Eformoterol

Eformoterol is permitted by inhalation with a completed Abbreviated TUE form.

Fenoterol

Fenoterol is a beta agonist designed to open up the airways to the lungs by decreasing bronchconstriction. It is a short-acting sympathomimetic agent with bronchodilator activity. Bronchodilators are drugs that relax the muscles around the airways, helping the airways to open up, making it easier to breathe.
Links:
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/fenoterol#section=GC-MS
https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01288
https://www.health24.com/Medical/Meds-and-you/Medication/Fenoterol-20130927

Sources: pubchem, Drugbank, Health24

Gonadotrophins

Gonadotropins (or glycoprotein hormones) are protein hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.

This is a family of proteins, which include the mammalian hormones Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), placental chorionic gonadotropins hCG and eCG and chorionic gonadotropin (CG), as well as at least two forms of fish gonadotropins. These hormones are central to the complex endocrine system that regulates normal growth, sexual development, and reproductive function.

The hormones LH and FSH are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, while hCG and eCG are secreted by the placenta.

Parenteral administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the production of testosterone in males and these gonadotropins can therefore be used by athletes to enhance muscle strength.

Due to its involvement in pregnancy, HCG is only prohibited in males.

Sources:
http://www.teachpe.com/drugs/hcg.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gonadotropin
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18414398

Salmenterol

The substance is permitted by use of inhalers only to prevent and/or treat asthma and exercise induced asthma. The relevant medical authority must be informed of their use prior to competition.

Hormone and metabolic modulators
Substances classified as "hormone and metabolic modulators" modify the effects of hormones or accelerate or slow down specific enzyme reactions. For example, anti-oestrogens can block the conversion of the male sex hormone testosterone into the female sex hormone oestrogen. "Hormone and metabolic modulators" are substances:
  • which influence the hormones and thus modify their effects;
  • which act on the body's metabolism.
Hormone and metabolic modulators have been prohibited as doping agents in and out of competition since 2001 for men and since 2005 for women. (Source: Antidoping Switzerland)

Clomiphene

Clomiphene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) commonly used in female fertility brand name prescription medications, such as Clomid. In women who do not produce ova (eggs) but wishes to become pregnant, clomiphene is used to induce ovulation (egg production).
The substance is also sometimes used to treat male infertility.
In men, clomiphene can alter testosterone levels by interfering with the negative feedback loop of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis.
Clomiphene is a doping substance according to the WADA Prohibited Substances list. Men who uses anabolic steroids, are highly likely to also use clomiphene or other anti-estrogens (for example, tamoxifen) as an accompanying drug.
The purpose of clomiphene, in this case, is to inhibit the estrogen problems caused by the overdosed anabolic steroids, that appear when anabolic steroids convert in the body to estrogens or other metabolic products that have estrogenic effetcs. These problems, in men, include the over-growth of breasts (gynecomastia) and blood coagulation disturbances.
Sources:
USADA - https://www.usada.org/substance-profile-clomiphene/
Drugs.com - https://www.drugs.com/clomiphene.html
Medline plus (https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a682704.html)
dopinglinkki - http://dopinglinkki.fi/en/info-bank/doping-substances/clomiphene

Diuretics and other masking agents
Diuretics and other masking agents are products that have the potential to impair the excretion of prohibited substances, to conceal their presence in urine or other samples used in doping control, or to increase haematological parameters.

Acetazolamide

Acetazolamide is used in the treatment of glaucoma, drug-induced edema, heart failure-induced edema, epilepsy and in reducing intraocular pressure after surgery. It has also been used in the treatment of altitude sickness, Ménière's disease, increased intracranial pressure and neuromuscular disorders.
The substance reduces the activity of a protein in your body called carbonic anhydrase. Blocking this protein can help reduce the build-up of certain fluids in the body. It is used in people with certain types of glaucoma to reduce the amount of fluid in the eye, which decreases pressure inside the eye.
Acetazolamide is also used as a diuretic ("water pill") in people with congestive heart failure, to reduce the build-up of fluid in the body. This build-up is called edema. (Source: Wikipedia and Drugs.com)

Finasteride

Finasteride prevents the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the body. DHT is involved in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Finasteride (Propecia) is used for the treatment of male pattern hair loss. Finasteride (Proscar) is used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men with an enlarged prostate.

Finasteride is a substance contained in particular in a number of hair loss treatments. It was added to the List in 2005 (in- and out-of-competition) following compelling research showing that they could mask steroids in the doping control process. When needed by the athletes, and no reasonable alternative was available, the substance was accessible to athletes under the Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) process and many athletes obtained TUEs.
At that time, science did not allow laboratories to reliably circumvent the masking properties of finasteride and of other alpha reductase inhibitors as part of the analysis of doping control samples. As a result, WADA added finasteride to the List based on its demonstrated potential to mask some doping substances.

Finasteride was removed from the 2009 Prohibited List because the masking effect of alpha reductase inhibitors remains. However, following recent advances in anti-doping science, anti-doping laboratories have now been able to render it ineffective through close consideration of steroid profiles. As a result, WADA agreed that this class of substances can now be removed from the List starting on January 1, 2009.

Sources:
http://www.drugs.com/mtm/finasteride.html

http://www.globaldro.com/uk-en/search/IngredientStatus.aspx?ingid=1958&countryid=2&sportid=10&exact=1&searchid=730632&userid=1&show=All&search=Finasteride&newSearch=false

Furosemide

Furosemide is a loop diuretic (water pill) that prevents your body from absorbing too much salt, allowing the salt to instead be passed in your urine.
It is used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and edema.
It is most commonly marketed by Sanofi-Aventis under the brand name Lasix. It has also been used to prevent Thoroughbred and Standardbred race horses from bleeding through the nose during races.
Along with some other diuretics, furosemide is also included on the World Anti-Doping Agency\'s banned drug list due to its alleged use as a masking agent for other drugs.

Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furosemide
http://www.drugs.com/furosemide.html

Hydrochlorothiazide

Hydrochlorothiazide, abbreviated HCTZ, HCT, or HZT, is a first-line diuretic drug of the thiazide class that acts by inhibiting the kidneys' ability to retain water. This reduces the volume of the blood, decreasing blood return to the heart and thus cardiac output and, by other mechanisms, is believed to lower peripheral vascular resistance. Hydrochlorothiazide is a calcium-sparing diuretic, meaning it can help the body get rid of excess water while still keeping calcium.

Spironolactone

Spironolactone is a potassium-sparing diuretic (water pill) that prevents your body from absorbing too much salt and keeps your potassium levels from getting too low.

Spironolactone is used to diagnose or treat a condition in which you have too much aldosterone in your body. Aldosterone is a hormone produced by your adrenal glands to help regulate the salt and water balance in your body.

Spironolactone also treats fluid retention (edema) in people with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, or a kidney disorder called nephrotic syndrome. This medication is also used to treat or prevent hypokalemia (low potassium levels in the blood).

Spironolactone may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

(Source. Drugs.com)

Thiazides

Thiazide diuretics decrease active re-absorption of sodium and chloride ions by inhibiting the sodium/chloride co-transporter in the distal convoluted tubule. They also increase potassium ion loss. Thiazide diuretics decrease the blood volume by diuresis and are used in the treatment of hypertension.

Thiazide is a type of molecule and a class of diuretics often used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and edema (such as that caused by heart, liver, or kidney disease).
The thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics reduce the risk of death, stroke, heart attack and heart failure due to hypertension.[3] In most countries, the thiazides are the cheapest antihypertensive drugs available

In sports, thiazide diuretics are used to flush out previously taken prohibited substances with forced diuresis and in sports where weight classes are involved to achieve acute weight loss.
Sources:
Drugs.com: http://www.drugs.com/drug-class/thiazide-diuretics.html
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thiazide
PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19187939 and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2962812/

Manipulation of Blood and Blood Components
Manipulation of Blood and Blood Components is considered a prohibited method because the method improve the body's oxygen supply. The total volume of blood in the human body ranges between five and six litres (70–80 ml per kg body weight). Blood consists of approx. 44% corpuscular elements and approx. 55% plasma. The rest (approx. 1%) is made up of hormones, dissolved gases, nutrients (sugar, fat and vitamins) and metabolites (e.g. urea and uric acid). Blood plasma is an aqueous solution (90% water) made up of proteins, salts and low-molecular substances (e.g. simple sugars). 1: The Administration or reintroduction of any quantity of autologous, allogenic (homologous) or heterologous blood or red blood cell products of any origin into the circulatory system. 2: Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen. Including, but not limited to: Perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified haemoglobin products e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes and microencapsulated haemoglobin products, excluding supplemental oxygen. 3: Any form of intravascular manipulation of the blood or blood components by physical or chemical means. (Sources: WADA, Anti-Doping Switzerland)

Blood doping

Blood doping is the administration of autologous, homologous or heterologous blood or red blood cell products of any origin, other than legitimate treatment.

Blood doping can occur when an athlete introduces additional blood to their natural blood volume or when other synthetic related blood products are used to increase red blood cell mass. An increased red blood cell mass improves that amount of oxygen the blood can carry to the body's muscles - therefore improving endurance performance.
Side effects

Any practice that involves adding blood to the body or taking blood out can pose a serious health risk. An athlete using their own blood may be at risk of bacterial infections and fatal reactions due to blood mislabelling. Other complications may include blood clots, stroke, congestive heart failure, hypertension, and shock.

An athlete who uses another person's blood also risks immune problems, fever and viral infections. The sharing of needles or blood can also lead to diseases such as HIV and hepatitis.

Elevating blood volume above natural levels is a dangerous practice as the blood becomes viscous and this causes the heart to work harder to pump the blood. Viscous blood is more prone to clotting. Unnaturally high red blood cell levels also increase the risk of heart attack, strokes and pulmonary embolism (lung clot). The risk is exacerbated by dehydration, which often occurs during endurance exercise.
Status in Sport

Blood doping is prohibited as a method for enhancing oxygen transfer under the World Anti-Doping Code 2006 Prohibited List (effective from 01/01/06).

Homologous blood or red blood cell products

Blood doping is the administration of autologous, homologous or heterologous blood or red blood cell products of any origin, other than legitimate treatment.

Blood doping can occur when an athlete introduces additional blood to their natural blood volume or when other synthetic related blood products are used to increase red blood cell mass. An increased red blood cell mass improves that amount of oxygen the blood can carry to the body's muscles - therefore improving endurance performance.
Side effects

Any practice that involves adding blood to the body or taking blood out can pose a serious health risk. An athlete using their own blood may be at risk of bacterial infections and fatal reactions due to blood mislabelling. Other complications may include blood clots, stroke, congestive heart failure, hypertension, and shock.

An athlete who uses another person's blood also risks immune problems, fever and viral infections. The sharing of needles or blood can also lead to diseases such as HIV and hepatitis.

Elevating blood volume above natural levels is a dangerous practice as the blood becomes viscous and this causes the heart to work harder to pump the blood. Viscous blood is more prone to clotting. Unnaturally high red blood cell levels also increase the risk of heart attack, strokes and pulmonary embolism (lung clot). The risk is exacerbated by dehydration, which often occurs during endurance exercise.
Status in Sport

Blood doping is prohibited as a method for enhancing oxygen transfer under the World Anti-Doping Code 2006 Prohibited List (effective from 01/01/06).

Utologous blood or red blood cell products

Blood doping is the administration of autologous, homologous or heterologous blood or red blood cell products of any origin, other than legitimate treatment.

Blood doping can occur when an athlete introduces additional blood to their natural blood volume or when other synthetic related blood products are used to increase red blood cell mass. An increased red blood cell mass improves that amount of oxygen the blood can carry to the body's muscles - therefore improving endurance performance.
Side effects

Any practice that involves adding blood to the body or taking blood out can pose a serious health risk. An athlete using their own blood may be at risk of bacterial infections and fatal reactions due to blood mislabelling. Other complications may include blood clots, stroke, congestive heart failure, hypertension, and shock.

An athlete who uses another person's blood also risks immune problems, fever and viral infections. The sharing of needles or blood can also lead to diseases such as HIV and hepatitis.

Elevating blood volume above natural levels is a dangerous practice as the blood becomes viscous and this causes the heart to work harder to pump the blood. Viscous blood is more prone to clotting. Unnaturally high red blood cell levels also increase the risk of heart attack, strokes and pulmonary embolism (lung clot). The risk is exacerbated by dehydration, which often occurs during endurance exercise.
Status in Sport

Blood doping is prohibited as a method for enhancing oxygen transfer under the World Anti-Doping Code 2006 Prohibited List (effective from 01/01/06).

Chemical and Physical manipulation
The following are prohibited: 1: Tampering, or Attempting to Tamper to alter the integrity and validity of Samples collected during Doping Control. Including but not limited to: Urine substitution and/or adulteration e.g. proteases. 2: Intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than 50 mL per 6 hour period except for those legitimately received in the course of hospital admissions,surgical procedures or clinical investigations. Source: WADA

Tampering, or attempting to tamper, with any part of Doping Control.

Tampering, or attempting to tamper, in order to alter the integrity and validity of Samples collected in Doping Controls.

Stimulants

Amphetamine

Amphetamine is a stimulant and an appetite suppressant. It stimulates the central nervous system (nerves and brain) by increasing the amount of certain chemicals in the body. This increases heart rate and blood pressure and decreases appetite, among other effects.

Amphetamine is used to treat narcolepsy and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD).

Amphetamine was discovered in 1887.

Sources: Wikipedia and Drugs.com

Benzoylecgonine

Benzoylecgonine is a metabolite of cocaine.

Benzylpiperazine

Benzylpiperazine (BZP) is a recreational drug with euphoric, stimulant properties. It mechanism of action is believed to be similar to MDMA and the effects produced by BZP are comparable to those produced by amphetamine. Adverse effects have been reported following its use including psychosis, renal toxicity, and seizures. It does not appear to be very addictive and no deaths have been reported following a sole ingestion of BZP. It is banned in a few countries, including the United States, Australia and in parts of Europe. However, its legal status is less restrictive in some other countries such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Canada. (Source: wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BZP)

The stimulant was added to the prohibited list for 2007.

Caffeine

For caffeine, a sample shall be considered as positive if the concentration in the urine exceeds 12 micrograms/ml.

In January 2004, caffeine was removed from the World Anti-Doping Agencys Prohibited List, and placed on their Monitoring Program, meaning that while elite athletes are allowed to use caffeine under WADAs anti-doping code, WADA would continue to monitor its use around the world.

Cathine

Prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5 micrograms per milliliter

Ephedrine

Prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 10 micrograms per milliliter.
Ephedrine is put on the WADA monitor list.

Heptaminol

An old medicine that UCI allowed to be used out-of-competition.

Isometheptene

Isometheptene (usually as isometheptene mucate) is a sympathomimetic amine sometimes used in the treatment of migraines and tension headaches due to its vasoconstricting properties, that is, it causes constriction (narrowing) of blood vessels (arteries and veins). Along with paracetamol and dichloralphenazone, it is one of the constituents of Amidrine. (Source: Wikipedia)

Methylephedrine

Prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 10 micrograms per milliliter.

Methylphenidate

Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant. It affects chemicals in the brain and nerves that contribute to hyperactivity and impulse control. The substance is used to treat attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and narcolepsy.
According to the Norwegian felleskatalogen.no the substance improves the activity in some parts of the brain which may be under active. The medicine can help improve attention (attention span), concentration and reduce impulsive behavior.
According to swissinfo.ch non-ADHD sufferers also account for the increase in Ritalin consumption. Students use it as a stimulant because they are convinced that it helps them get through intense periods of study.
Sources: drugs.com, swissinfo.ch and felleskatalogen.no

Modafinil

Modafinil is used to counter excessive sleepiness due to narcolepsy.

It stimulates the central nervous system and shares some similarities with amphetamine. It is considered a mild stimulant and is, unlike amphetamine, not associated with euphoric effects at high doses. The risk of development of drug dependence or tolerance of this drug is low, at least in patients without prior history of drug dependence.

Modafinil has been classified as a performance enhancing stimulant by WADA since 2004. While several mainstream sleep experts say they doubt the drug has performance enhancing effects, a study from 2004 showed that Modafinil prolongs exercise time to exhaustion while performing at 85 % of VO2max and also reduces the perception of effort required to maintain the threshold (1).

Jacobs, I; Bell, DG (2004) "Effects of acute modafinil ingestion on exercise time to exhaustion" Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(6):1078-1082 1.
http://en.wikipedia.org/
http://www.fass.se/

Written by International Doping Tests & Management (www.idtm.se) for The Anti-Doping Database

Nikethamide

Nikethamide is a stimulant which mainly affects the respiratory cycle. Widely known by its former trade name of Coramine, it was used in the mid-1900s as a medical countermeasure against tranquilizer overdoses, before the advent of endotracheal intubation and positive-pressure lung expansion. It is now considered to be of no value for such purposes, and may in fact be dangerous.

Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coramine

Octopamine

Octopamine, also known as β,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine, is an endogenous biogenic amine that is closely related to norepinephrine, and has effects on the adrenergic and dopaminergic systems.[1] Biosynthesis of the D(-)-enantiomer of octopamine is by β-hydroxylation of tyramine via the enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase. Under the trade names Epirenor, Norden, and Norfen, octopamine is also used clinically as a sympathomimetic agent.
All stimulants (including both optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited,
except imidazole derivatives for topical use and those stimulants included in the
2010 Monitoring Program.
(Sources: Wikipedia/WADA Prohibited List)

Oxilofrine

Oxilofrine (also known as Methylsynephrine, Hydroxyephrine, Oxyephrine, and 4-HMP) is a stimulant drug related chemically to ephedrine and to synephrine.
Classical pharmacological studies on animals and isolated animal tissues showed that the principal actions of parenterally-administered synephrine included raising blood-pressure, dilating the pupil, and constricting peripheral blood vessels.
(Source: wikipedia)

Phenpromethamine

Phenpromethamine is a member of the phenethylamine family. It is a stimulant, and is currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency.

Phentermine

Phentermine is used, in combination with diet and exercise, to help you lose weight. It works by decreasing your appetite. In some countries this drug is also known as Fentermine.

Phenylpropanolamine

Prohibited in-competition only (not prohibited out-of-competition).

NOTE: In November 2000, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a public health warning regarding phenylpropanolamine (PPA) due to the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. The FDA, supported by results of a research program, requested that manufacturers voluntarily discontinue marketing products that contain PPA and that consumers work with their healthcare providers to select alternative products. (Source: http://www.drugs.com)

Pseudoephedrine

According to the WADA Prohibited List, Pseudoephedrine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 150 micrograms per milliliter.

Pseudoephedrine is used to relieve nasal congestion caused by colds, allergies, and hay fever. It is also used to temporarily relieve sinus congestion and pressure. Pseudoephedrine will relieve symptoms but will not treat the cause of the symptoms or speed recovery. Pseudoephedrine is in a class of medications called nasal decongestants. It works by causing narrowing of the blood vessels in the nasal passages.

Side effects
Pseudoephedrine may cause side effects. U.S. National Library of Medicine recommends you tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
restlessness
nausea
vomiting
weakness
headache

Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of the following symptoms, U.S. National Library of Medicine recommends you call your doctor immediately:
nervousness
dizziness
difficulty sleeping
stomach pain
difficulty breathing
fast, pounding, or irregular heartbeat

The following symptoms are more common with high doses
Convulsions (seizures)
hallucinations (seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there)
irregular or slow heartbeat
shortness of breath or troubled breathing

Symptoms of overdose
Convulsions (seizures)
fast breathing
hallucinations (seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there)
increase in blood pressure
irregular heartbeat (continuing)
shortness of breath or troubled breathing (severe or continuing)
slow or fast heartbeat (severe or continuing)
unusual nervousness, restlessness, or excitement

Other uses
Long-distance truck drivers and athletes, for example, have reportedly used pseudoephedrine as a stimulant to increase their state of alertness/awareness.

Sources:
Medline Plus - http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682619.html
Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudoephedrine
Drugs.com - http://www.drugs.com/sfx/pseudoephedrine-side-effects.html

Note: The substance was taken off the Wada Prohibited Substance List on January 1, 2004. It was put back on in 2010 after being on the monitoring list for the last six years.
More information here: http://www.wada-ama.org/Documents/World_Anti-Doping_Program/WADP-Prohibited-list/WADA_Additional_Info_Pseudoephedrine_2010_EN.pdf

Ritalinic Acid

Ritalinic Acid is the main metabolite of methylphenidate.

Sibutramine

Sibutramine is used in combination with a reduced calorie diet and exercise to help people who are overweight lose weight and maintain their weight loss. Sibutramine is in a class of medications called appetite suppressants. It works by acting on appetite control centers in the brain to decrease appetite.
Sibutramine is also know under its brand name Merida.

NOTE: Sibutramine is no longer available in the U.S. It was withdrawn from the U.S. market in October 2010.
The manufacturer has decided to stop producing sibutramine based on information from a recent clinical study. In this study, people taking sibutramine had an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. If you are currently taking sibutramine, you should stop taking this medication and call your doctor to discuss switching to another treatment for weight loss or maintenance of weight loss.
Sources:
drugs.com: http://www.drugs.com/mtm/sibutramine.html
WADA: http://list.wada-ama.org/list/s6-stimulants/sibutramine/
Medline Plus: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a601110.html

Narcotics

Buprenorphine

Buprenorphine is an opioid medication. An opioid is sometimes called a narcotic.
Buprenorphine is used to treat narcotic addiction. Buprenorphine is not for use as a pain medication.
Buprenorphine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Source: Drugs.com

Fentanyl

Fentanyl is a narcotic (opioid) pain medicine.

This substance is a powerful synthetic opiate analgesic similar to but more potent than morphine. It is typically used to treat patients with severe pain, or to manage pain after surgery. According to drugs.com Fentanyl is used to treat "breakthrough" cancer pain that is not controlled by other medicines.

Like heroin, morphine, and other opioid drugs, fentanyl works by binding to the body's opiate receptors, highly concentrated in areas of the brain that control pain and emotions. When opiate drugs bind to these receptors, they can drive up dopamine levels in the brain's reward areas, producing a state of euphoria and relaxation. Medications called opiate receptor antagonists act by blocking the effects of opiate drugs. Naloxone is one such antagonist. Overdoses of fentanyl should be treated immediately with an opiate antagonist.

Sources:
http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/fentanyl
http://www.drugs.com/fentanyl.html

Oxycodone

Oxycodone is in a group of drugs called narcotic pain relievers. It is similar to morphine.

It was developed in Germany in 1916 as one of several new semi-synthetic opioids in an attempt to improve on the existing opiates. It is known as a strong narcotic pain-reliever and cough suppressant similar to morphine, codeine and hydrocodone.

The medication is used to treat moderate to severe pain. The extended-release form of this medication is for around-the-clock treatment of pain. It is not for treating pain just after a surgery unless you were already taking oxycodone before the surgery.

The precise mechanism of action is not known but may involve stimulation of opioid receptors in the brain. Oxycodone does not eliminate the sensation of pain but decreases discomfort by increasing tolerance to pain. In addition to tolerance to pain, oxycodone also causes sedation and respiratory depression. The FDA approved oxycodone in 1976.

The substance is prohibited out-of-competition, but not in-competition.

Oxycodone is also known as the following brand names: ETH-Oxydose, OxyContin, Oxyfast, Oxyir, Percolone, Roxicodone, Roxicodone Intensol.

(Sources: Wikipedia, Drugs.com, Medicinenet.com, GlobalDRO)

ysergic Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

For more information go here: http://www.drugabuse.gov/Infofacts/LSD.html

Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids are the psychoactive chemicals in the cannabis plant. Marijuana, hashish and hashish oil are all derived from the cannabis plant. The most active constituent in cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Immediate side effects of cannabinoids may include impairment of balance and coordination, loss of concentration, increase in heart rate, dry mouth, increased appetite, drowsiness, hallucinations and reduced ability to perform complex tasks such as driving. Prolonged use of marijuana may result in loss of motivation, decreased concentration, impaired memory and learning disabilities, respiratory diseases such as lung cancer, throat cancer and chronic bronchitis. Dependence and addiction are also risks associated with cannabis use.

Cannabis

Cannabis are one of the most commonly used illicit drugs and can be found within the dried flowers, leaves or resin of the Cannabis plant. Cannabis may also be known as marijuana, pot, hash, ganja, green or weed. It is most commonly smoked but can also be eaten.
Cannabis use is most commonly associated with recreational or social settings but regardless of the environment in which it is taken, if it is found in your system on competition day there are serious consequences.
Cannabinoids are listed on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List since 1 January 2004.
Cannabis not classified as a performance enhancing drug, but is on the Prohibited List because the drug is damaging to the athletes health. According to National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre (NCPIC) in Australia cannabis use can negatively impact on a person’s sporting performance in a variety of ways. It is known to increase heart rate while decreasing cardiac stroke volume, resulting in diminished peak performance. It can also result in reduced sport performance through slowed reaction time, problems with motor coordination, hand-eye coordination, and perceptual accuracy. Cannabis can affect appetite and food cravings and potentially undermine body mass and nutrition. Use of cannabis could even be potentially dangerous in sports that rely on quick reactions and fast decision-making.
In addition, for some people, cannabis use can cause increased anxiety, panic, nervousness and restlessness thus causing disruption to sleeping patterns. Some people may believe that cannabis use makes them sleep better and be more relaxed and less nervous before playing sport. Currently however, no research has objectively demonstrated that cannabis use results in observable increases in performance through relaxing the athlete or improving their sleeping patterns.
In the term of being bad for the athlete health, smoking cannabis exposes the lungs to both carbon monoxide and tar which increase the risks of a range of health problems including respiratory tract infections, bronchitis and lung cancer.
(Source: National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre (NCPIC), Australia, ncpic.org.au)

Carboxy THC

11-nor-9-Carboxy-THC, also known as 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-COOH-THC, THC-COOH, and THC-11-oic acid, is the main secondary metabolite of THC which is formed in the body after Cannabis is consumed.

Glucocorticoids
Glucocorticoids was renamed from Glucocorticosteriods in 2015. WADA-description: Glucocorticosteroids are described as Glucocorticoids to reflect current nomenclature and use.

Prednisone

Prednisone is a synthetic corticosteroid drug that is particularly effective as an immunosuppressant drug. It is used to treat certain inflammatory diseases, some autoimmune diseases, and some types of cancer, but it has significant adverse effects. Source: drugs.com

Alcohol
Alcohol is prohibited in-competition only, in the following sports: Aeronautic, Archery, Automobile, Billiards, Boules, Karate, Modern Petathlon (for disciplines involving shooting), Motorcycling and Powerboating. Detection will be conducted by analysis of breath and/or blood. The doping violation threshold for each Federation is reported in parenthesis.

Alcohol

Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant that slows down the actions of the brain and body. Combining alcohol with other drugs can magnify the effects of alcohol or of other drugs administered at the same time.
Side effects

Side effects of alcohol include impairment of judgment, reflexes and muscular coordination; slurred speech; double vision; memory and comprehension loss, vomiting; incontinence; sleepiness and poor respiration.

Prolonged use may lead to addiction and dependence.
Status in Sport

Alcohol is classified as a substance prohibited in particular sports under the World Anti-Doping Code 2006 Prohibited List (effective 1/1/2006).

Generally alcohol is prohibited in sports where its use may be considered detrimental to athletic performance or a safety hazard.

Beta-Blockers
Unless otherwise specified, beta-blockers are prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports. Archery (FITA) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition) Automobile (FIA) Billiards (all disciplines) (WCBS) Darts (WDF) Golf (IGF) Shooting (ISSF, IPC) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition) Skiing/Snowboarding (FIS) in ski jumping, freestyle aerials/halfpipe and snowboard halfpipe/big air

Bisoprolol

Bisoprolol is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure. Bisoprolol is in a class of medications called beta blockers. Beta-blockers affect the heart and circulation.

Bisoprolol is a specified substance belonging to the P2, beta-blockers group of substances prohibited in particular sports of the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List.

Beta-blockers are prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports.
Aeronautic (FAI)
Archery (FITA) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition)
Automobile (FIA)
Billiards (all disciplines) (WCBS)
Boules (CMSB)
Bridge (FMB)
Darts (WDF)
Golf (IGF)
Ninepin and Tenpin Bowling (FIQ)
Powerboating (UIM)
Shooting (ISSF, IPC) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition)
Skiing/Snowboarding (FIS) in ski jumping, freestyle aerials/halfpipe and snowboard halfpipe/big air

Sources:
http://www.drugs.com/bisoprolol.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bisoprolol
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a693024.html
http://list.wada-ama.org/list/p2-beta-blockers/#P2. Beta-Blockers

Labetalol

Labetalol is in a group of drugs called beta-blockers. Beta-blockers affect the heart and circulation (blood flow through arteries and veins).
Labetalol is used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Labetalol may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Read more at http://www.drugs.com/mtm/labetalol.html#xyjhLiuas4LifH1O.99

Metoprolol

Metoprolol is in a group of drugs called beta-blockers. Beta-blockers affect the heart and circulation (blood flow through arteries and veins).
Metoprolol is used to treat angina (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). It is also used to treat or prevent heart attack.
Metoprolol may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Read more: http://www.drugs.com/metoprolol.html#ixzz12jskjJJ9

Propranolol

Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocking Agent

Propranolol is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent. It has no other autonomic nervous system activity. Propranolol is a competitive antagonist which specifically competes with beta-adrenergic receptor stimulating agents for available beta-receptor sites.

Specified Substances
This category includes substances which are less likely to be successfully abused as doping agents or which are particularly susceptible to unintentional anti-doping rule violations because of their general availability in medicinal products.

Glycerol

Glycerol is categorised as a masking agent under the Code. The World Anti-Doping Agency has recently clarified that glycerol is prohibited as a plasma expander which requires the ingestion of quantities far beyond that which are commonly found in foodstuffs and toiletries.

Lidocaine

Local anaesthetics are substances that cause a temporary loss of feeling and are used in medicine to control pain. Athletes use local anaesthetics mask pain so that they can continue to train or compete when they are injured. This can result in making the injury worse or even cause permanent damage. Local anaesthetics can be found in both prescription and over-the-counter medications.
Injectable local anaesthetics are permitted only when medically justified; when lidocaine are used and only local or intra-articular injections can be administered.

Methylhexaneamine

Methylhexanamine (or Dimethylamylamine, DMAA) was added to the WADA prohibited list 2010 as a stimulant.
Methylhexaneamine, a component of geranium oil, is now the ingredient of a variety of supplements. It is chemically related to ephedrine and amphetamine.
In New Zeeland it is an active ingredient in 'party pills'. In addition it has been found in weight loss products.
Adverse effects of this drug include stroke, nausea and headache.

In the 1970 this stimulant was used as a nasal decongestant, but has not been medically used since. According to WADA the substance has now reappeared in a number of nutritional supplements and was therefore subject to potential inadvertent use by athletes. Because of this the drug was re-classified for 2011 from the 'non-specified' to 'specified' stimulant class, meaning that if the athlete can prove that they did not take the drug intentionally he or she may get a reduced sanction.
Several cases of methylhexanamine were found during the 2010 Commonwealth Games. In addition, in October 2010, nine Australian Athletes were found by the Australian Sports Anti-doping Authority to have tested positive for the substance.

http://www.cyclingnews.com
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methylhexanamine

Terbutaline

Terbutaline is permitted by use of inhalers only to prevent and/or treat asthma and exercise induced asthma. The relevant medical authority must be informed of their use prior to competition.

Xipamide

Xipamide is a sulfonamide diuretic drug marketed by Eli Lilly under the trade names Aquaphor (in Germany) and Aquaphoril (in Austria).
Xipamide is used to treat high blood pressure and fluid retention. It removes excess water from the body by increasing how much and how often you pass water.
By removing fluid from the blood vessels also decreases the pressure within the blood vessels. This makes it easier for a weak heart to pump blood around the body.

Diuretics act in the kidneys. They work by causing the kidneys to increase the amount of salts, such as potassium and sodium, that are filtered out of the blood and into the urine. When these salts are filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, they draw water alongside them. As diuretics increase the removal of salts from the blood, they also cause more water to be drawn out of the blood and into the urine.

According to the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists the drug is not approved in the United States.

Sources:
http://www.patient.co.uk/medicine/Xipamide.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xipamide
http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/heart-and-blood/medicines/diurexan.html
http://www.ahfsdruginformation.com
DRO-status:
http://www.globaldro.com/uk-en/search/IngredientStatus.aspx?ingid=480&countryid=2&sportid=32&exact=1&searchid=721062&userid=1&show=All&search=Xipamide&newSearch=false

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NSAIDs reduce inflammation and relieve fever and pain by blocking enzymes and proteins made by the body. NSAIDs such as ibuprofen and naproxen block a protein (called prostaglandin) that makes heavy menstrual bleeding worse. Aspirin does not block this protein. Athletes often seek artificial means to gain advantage and prolong participation when competing. This often involves taking naturally occurring or chemically synthesized compounds. The World Anti-Doping Agency does not prohibit the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) because these agents are not performance enhancing, and their analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects are at best performance enabling. Consequently, athletes have relatively unrestricted access to NSAIDs, which are readily available as over-the-counter drugs. However, concern has been raised on athletes' prophylactic use of these agents. Data from many sporting fields have consistently demonstrated that many individuals self-administer NSAIDs prior to athletic participation to prevent pain and inflammation before it occurs. However, scientific evidence for this approach is currently lacking, and athletes should be aware of the potential risks in using NSAIDs as a prophylactic agent. These agents are not benign, and can produce significant side effects, including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular conditions, as well as musculoskeletal and renal side effects. The latter side effects appear paradoxical to the rationale for prophylactic use of NSAIDs. This article discusses current observations regarding athlete use of NSAIDs, and the possible benefits and potential risks of their use. More here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20424410

Codeine

The substance Codeine is on the WADA monitoring list. It used to be on the prohibited list earlier, and you will find cases related to codeine in early doping cases.

Prohibition Against Participation During Ineligibility

No Athlete or other Person who has been declared Ineligible may, during the period of Ineligibility, participate in any capacity in a Competition or activity (other than authorized anti-doping education or rehabilitation programs) authorized or organized by any Signatory, Signatory's member organization, or a club or other member organization of a Signatory’s member organization, or in Competitions authorized or organized by any professional league or any international- or national-level Event organization.

An Athlete or other Person subject to a period of Ineligibility longer than four (4) years may, after completing four (4) years of the period of Ineligibility, participate in local sport events in a sport other than the sport in which the Athlete or other Person committed the anti-doping rule violation, but only so long as the local sport event is not at a level that could otherwise qualify such Athlete or other Person directly or indirectly to compete in (or accumulate points toward) a national championship or International Event.

An Athlete or other Person subject to a period of Ineligibility shall remain subject to Testing.

Non-approved substances
Any pharmacological substance which is not addressed by any of the subsequent sections of the List and with no current approval by any governmental regulatory health authority for human therapeutic use (e.g drugs under pre-clinical or clinical development or discontinued, designer drugs, substances approved only for veterinary use) is prohibited at all times.

Gabapentin

Gabapentin is a human anti-epileptic drug which is also used for the control of neuropathic pain and acts inter alia on the nervous system as evidenced by the report from the FEI Medication Sub-Committee (\"MSC\") dated 12 June 2006. The detected substance is graded \"1\" by the MSC

Guanabenz

The substance is used in humans to lower blood pressure and decreases heart rate. The FEI Medication Sub-Committee grades the substance as one that has high potential to affect performance.